What are the sources of the Koran? Where did these versions of Biblical history and secular history come from? The answer PAGANISM, THE TALMUD, THE APOCRYPHA, AND OTHER BOOKS OF FABLES AND LEGENDS!
The Qur'an claims that it is the Book of God and that ; "falsehood comes not to it from before nor from behind it." It is the true word of God, the epitome of knowledge. Thus runs the myth of the Qur'an, which disproves itself through the occurrence of myth within it!
Whoever peruses the verses of the Qur'an find that they record things that have nothing to do with historical fact. The historical material in the Qur'an has gone beyond the bounds of reality to those of fairy-tales. This was the reason that prompted the unbelieving Arabs who opposed the Islamic dawa in Mecca to say that the Qur'an was nothing but the fairy-tales of the ancients (Sura al-An`am 6:25). One may indeed wonder: are there myths in the Qur'an?
Warraq writes: The prophet TRANSFERRED to ISLAM the beliefs and practices of the HEATHEN PAGAN ARABS, especially into the ceremonies of the pilgrimage to Mecca. And yet Muslims continue to hold that their faith came directly from Heaven, and that the 'Koran is held to be of eternal origin recorded in heaven, lying as it does there upon a preserved table suras 85:21; 6:19, 97...Perhaps Muslims have the unconscious fear that if we can trace the teachings of the Koran to a purely HUMAN AND EARTHLY SOURCE, then the entire edifice of Islam will crumble" (Why I Am Not A Muslim, p.34, emphasis mine).
Professor Jomier, one of Frances greatest Middle Eastern scholars says, " Muslims receive these narratives as the word of God, WITHOUT ENQUIRING ABOUT THEIR HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. In face we have here a popular poetic form of LEGENDS, VARIANTS OF RELIGIOUS THEMES KNOWN FROM OTHER SOURCES" (Morey, Islamic Invasion, p.147, emphasis mine).
Morey also notes that "Abraham Geiger in 1833, and further documented by another Jewish scholar, Dr. Abrahan Katsh, of New York University, in 1954, " that "Many of the stories in the Koran come from the JEWISH TALMUD, THE MIDRASH, AND MANY APOCRYPHAL WORKS" (ibid., pp.148-149, emphasis mine). The Britannica also documents the same thing (15:648)
And what is amazing is that, "In spite of all the evidences, it is interesting that Muslim authors have been most unwilling to address the issue of the human origins of the Koran, but have simply repeated their dogmatic assertions about its divine origin. In fact, in our research of Muslim authors we have not even come across an acknowledgment of such problems in the Koran to say nothing of Solutions" (Answering Islam, p.309, emphasis mine).
W. St. Clair-Tisdall is the best source for the origins of the Koran. He demonstrates the direct dependence of Koranic stories of the Bible from the Talmud, the Apocrypha (Jewish and Christian), Zoroaster Buddhism, and also Hinduism. To read his book on-line go to http://www.answering-islam.org/Quran/Sources/Tisdall/ Also this web site where he answers his critics at http://www.answering-islam.org/Quran/Sources/Tisdall/WW/
Here is a brief summary of the sources of the Koran:
The birth of Christ in Sura 19:22-34 come from the "The History of the Nativity of Mary and the Savior's infancy."
Alexander the Great as we have seen come from the "Romance of Alexander."
The Seven Heavens in Sura 17:46; 23:88; 41:11; 65:12, comes from the Indo-Iranian sources in both Hindu and Zoroastrian scriptures.
Sura 11:9 we find God's throne above the waters. This comes from the Jewish Rashi
In Sura 7:44, there is mention of a wall called Aaraf. This comes from the Jewish Midrash.
Suras 15:17; 37:7; 67:5 we find Satan listening stealthily and being driven away with stones. This story we find in Jewish writings, about Genii "listening behind the curtain in order to gain knowledge of what is to come."
Sura 1:29 talks about hell being full. In the Rabbinic book Othioth Derabbi Akiba 8:1, we find the same thing.
Sura 24:24 is found in the Jewish Talmud (Cheiga 16 Taanith 11).
The traditions of Mount Caf is a garbled and misunderstood version of the passage in Hagigah.
The Creation of Adam (sura 2:28-33) resembles the Midrash Rabbah on Leviticus, Parashah 19, and Genesis, Parashah 8 ; and Sanhedrin 38.
Various Suras also recount that God commanded the angels to worship Adam (Suras 7:10-26; 18:48; 20:115; 37:71-86). This agrees with the account in the Midrash of Rabbi Moses.
Cain and Abel (Sura 5:35) resembles the Mishna Sandhedrin 4:5. The conversation of Cain and Abel is taken from the Targrum of Jerusalem.
The conversations of Noah when they were building the ark is from the Sandhedrin 108
The story of Abraham being saved from Nimrod's fire (suras 2:260; 6:74-84; 21:52-72; 19:42-50; 26:69-79; 29:15-16; 37:81-95; 43:25-27; 60:4 etc... All stories about Abraham have been shown to be from the Jewish Midrash Rabbah, see Tisdall and Geiger.
Muhammad often refers to God as "rabb," meaning "Lord." Sometimes as "Lord of the Worlds, see sura 56:79; 82:29 83:6. Also at the head of each Sura we see God being called "The Merciful," (Sura 55:1, 78:3). This term was used before Islam, by the pagan Arabs. It has been found in South Arabian inscriptions.
The story of the Seven sleepers (sura 18:8-26) comes from the legend that arose around the 5th century, and spread all over Europe and Asia. It originated from a Syrian Bishop named James Sarug.
The denial of the crucifixion of Jesus, see Sura 4-157-158, comes from the "apocryphal book Travels of the Apostles," see Abdul-Haqq Sharing your Faith with a Muslim, pp.130-139 for a full study.
Warraq writes: "These old Testament Characters...mentioned in the Koran...as the Dictionary of Islam puts it: '[are] with strange want of accuracy and a LARGE ADMIXTURE OF TALMUDIC FABLE''' (Why...p.54, emphasis mine).
Even Muhammed admitted that he himself "I Am not apostle of new doctrines..." (Sura 46:8, Rodwell Transl) And we see that in all the stories in the Koran was nothing new. They were all borrowed from myths legends and paganism.
Interesting, the Koran in Sura 25:5 it says that the unbelievers say: "...tales of the ancients he hath put in writing! And they are dictated to him morn and even" Mohammed's response which of course was Allah's response? All they do is attack the character of those who made the accusations, "Of a truth, it is they who have put forward an iniquity and falsehood" (Sura 25:4).
"Say: 'He has sent it down who knoweth the secrets of the Heavens..." (25:6). Interesting, Muhammad did not deny the borrowing, but denied that these were myths. Warraq writes, "Two important passages in the Koran indicate that he may well have had a Jewish teacher, probably a rabbi. In sura 25.5f., the unbelievers accuse him of listening to old stories, dictated to him by someone else. Muhammad does not deny the human teacher, but insists his inspiration is divine. In sura 16.105, the angel of revelation tells us, "We know very well that they say: it is only a mortal man who has taught him. But the language of him to whom they refer is foreign, while this language is clear Arabic!" Torrey has argued this instructor must have been a Babylonian Jew from Southern Mesopotamia.
"Besides learning from particular individuals, by visiting the Jewish quarter, Muhammad learned from direct observation the rites and rituals of Jewish practice. In any case, the Arabs who came into contact with the Jewish communities had already acquired a knowledge of Jewish customs, stories, legends, and practice; much of this material is to be found in pre-Islamic poetry." (ibid, p.50, emphasis added). Sura 16 that says, "it is only a mortal man who has taught him" the context is that the Koran only came from mortal man and not God, but then he says, "this language is clear Arabic." Muhammad thought for some reason that Arabic was some sort of divine language, but he said this to proof not only was he borrowing from men, but that he was getting revelations from God as well in Arabic. The borrowing was never denied!
Muhammad thought these stories were divine in nature, and came from God, he never denied the borrowing. To him these were not "tales," but true histories. The Quran says, "And that we have related to thee of these HISTORIES of these apostles, is to confirm thy heart thereby. By these hath the truth reached thee..."(Sura 11:121). "Thus do We recite to thee histories of what passed of old; and from ourself have we given thee admonition." (20:99). Again the Koran confirms that these are not "inventions" but true histories, "When at last the Apostles lost all hope, and deemed that they were reckoned as liars, our aid reached them, and we delivered whom we would; but our vengeance was not averted from the wicked. Certainly in their histories is an example for men of understanding. This is no new tale of fiction, but a confirmation of previous scriptures, and an explanation of all things, and guidance and mercy to those who believe.." (12:110-111). Notice, first, these stories are NOT in the Bible. Second Muhammad is saying these stories are known they are not new. And third he believed that they are true and these events happened, but history shows that they are not, they are myths!
And if you did not believe what he said, he told people to ask the "people of the book" to confirm the things he was saying, "If thou art in doubt as to what we have sent down to thee, inquire at those who have read the scriptures before thee. Now hath the TRUTH come unto thee from thy Lord: be not therefore of those who doubt." (Sura 10:94). This proves that these stories WERE KNOWN, but these stories are not in the bible, but in legends and myths. Muhammad thought these were in the bible, and its not true!
Muhammad did not like questions about his faith. In the first chapter of the Koran it says, "No doubt is there about this book" (Sura 2:1). Why shouldn't we put it to the test. What is Allah afraid of?
Muhammad when he was asked questions, "The Holy Prophet himself forbade people to ask questions...so do not try to probe into such things" (The Meaning of the Koran, vol.11, pp.76-77). If you do not want people to investigate, there in itself raises questions to the validity of the faith of Islam. The Bible however says to "prove all things" (1 Thessalonians 5:21). God is challenging us to prove the Bible. That shows confidence in His word that God has, that the Bible is true unlike the Koran which tells us to do the opposite!
And the origins of these sources are nothing more than "...LEGENDARY and spurious...which began to appear in the 2nd century. They were mostly FORGERIES, and we so recognized from the first. 'They were so full of NONSENSICAL STORIES OF CHRIST and the Apostles, that they had never been regarded as DIVINE...Deliberate attempts to FILL THE GAPS of the New Testament story of Jesus in order to further heretical ideas by FALSE CLAIMS...It is said that MOHAMMED GOT HIS IDEAS OF CHRISTIANITY FROM THESE BOOKS" (Halley's Bible Handbook, p.747, emphasis mine).
The Bible says "For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty" (2 Peter 1:16).
Read the book called THE INFLUENCE OF ANIMISM ON ISLAM AN ACCOUNT OF POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS BY SAMUEL M. ZWEMER, F.R.G.S. for more details!