Payne noted that Muhammad was taught the "ceremonies" attached to Hubal. What are those ceremonies?
Here at the time of the new moon, following the summer solstice, at the hottest time of the year, the ancient pilgrims worshipped the Moon God [Hubal]...and then REVERENTLY KISSED IT [the Black Stone], AND AFTER THEY WALKED AROUND THE KAABA SEVEN TIMES" (ibid., p.4, emphasis mine).
In the book Behind the Veil, it notes the ceremony about kissing the stone: "Al-Burkhari records a famous statement made by Umar...which demonstrates the CONFUSION OF THE MUSLIMS. The Burkhari says: 'When Umar ibn al-Khattab reached the black stone, he kissed it and said, 'I know that you are stone that does not hurt nor benefit. If I had Not SEEN THE PROPHET KISS YOU, I would not have kissed you'...ALL scholars confirm this statement" (p.285, emphasis mine) Note: Authors of this Behind the Veil could not give their names for fear of their lives but you can find this book on line at: http://answering-islam.org/BehindVeil/index.html
Why did Muhammad kiss the stone? The stone that was sacred to Hubal. If Allah was different that Hubal, That would have been blasphemy "joining other gods with God" as the Koran says! Hubal and Allah are the same deity, there is no question about it!
What about the Pilgrimage?
"The Pilgrimage is a SURVIVAL OF THE ANCIENT ARABIAN PILGRIMAGES TO THE HOLY STONES. Almost none of the customs attended upon the pilgrimage DERIVE FROM MUHAMMAD TIMES...Muhammad changed the sevenfold tawaf or cicumambulation of the Kaaba only in one respect BEFORE HIS TIME it was performed naked" (Payne, The History of Islam, p.79, emphasis mine). These customs were done to Hubal long before Muhammad, and none of these customs started in Mohammed's time, they were already there. Muhammad just changed ONE thing, being naked that's all.
"...several pre-Islamic ritual practices ESPECIALLY THOSE CONNECTED WITH THE KAABA CULT IN MECCA WERE CONTINUED BY MUHAMMAD..." (Frederick Denny, An Introduction to Islam, p.56, emphasis mine).
"...important Muslim practices such as visiting the Kaaba, and the many details of the ceremony of Hajj, including visits of Safa and Marwa, and also throwing stones against the stone pillar symbolizing Satan, were ALL PRE-ISLAMIC PRACTICES OF PAGAN ARABIA" (Answering Islam, Norman Geisler, p.309, emphasis mine).
"Pagan ritualism also CONTRIBUTED to the religious world into which Muhammad was born...The PAGANS OF PRE-ISLAMIC ARABIA taught that everyone should bow and pray towards Mecca during certain times of the day. Everyone should make a pilgrimage to Mecca to worship at the Kaaba at least once in their life. Once they arrive at Mecca, the PAGANS RAN AROUND THE KAABA SEVEN TIMES KISSED THE BLACK STONE...The pagan rites comprised the religion into which MUHAMMAD WAS RAISED BY HIS FAMILY [who were worshippers of Hubal-the Allah of Mecca] IS ACKNOWLEDGED BY ALL. Thus it is no surprise to find that, as Arab scholar Nazar-Ali has observed: 'Islam RETAINED MANY ASPECTS OF THE PAGAN RELIGION''' (Morey, Islamic Invasion, pp.42-43, emphasis mine).
"Middle Eastern scholar, E.M. Wherry in his monumental work, A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran shows that worship of Allah and the worship of BAAL (HUBAL) involved the worship of heavenly bodies, the moon, the stars and the sun" (Moshey, Who is this Allah, p.137, emphasis mine). Notice Allah and Hubal or Baal, the religions are exactly the same, because the deities are the same!
Here are some more quotes about the origins of the ceremonies in Islam:
"Islam owes many of its most superstitious details to old ARABIAN PAGANISM especially in the rites and rituals of the pilgrimage to Mecca (see suras 2:153; 22:28-30; 5:1-4; 22:37)...the superstitions connected with the jinn's [Genies] and old folk tales such as those of Ad and Thamud...The entire ceremony of the pilgrimage has been shamelessly taken over from PRE-ISLAMIC PRACTICE...Cicumambulation of a sanctuary was a very common rite practiced in many localities. The pilgrim during his circuit frequently kissed or caressed the Idol. Sir William Muir thinks that the seven circuits of the Kaaba 'were probably emblematical of the revolution of the planetary bodies.' While Zwemer goes so far as to suggest that the seven circuits of the Kaaba, three time rapidly and four times slowly were 'an imitation of the inner and outer planets.'...It UNQUESTIONABLE that the Arabs at a comparatively late period worshipped the sun and other heavenly bodies" (Warraq, pp.35-36, 40, emphasis mine).
Alfred Guillaume, Professor of Arabic, in London says, " THE CUSTOMS OF HEATHENISM has left an indelible mark on Islam, notably in the RITES OF PILGRIMAGE" (Islam, p.6, emphasis mine). Notice how all the sources note that the rituals are from Mecca, where the chief god of Mohammed's tribe dwelt and worshipped Hubal, the Allah of the Kaaba! The religion of Hubal and Allah are one and the same, because Hubal and Allah are one and the same!
Lastly Warraq writes: "Muhammad DID NOT find it necessary to introduce an altogether novel deity, BUT HAD CONTENTED HIMSELF WITH RIDDING THE HEATHEN ALLAH OF HIS COMPANIONS [the daughters of Allah]...Wellhausen also cites pre-Islamic literature where Allah is mentioned as a great deity. Had he not been ACCUSTOM FROM HIS YOUTH to the idea of Allah as the supreme go, in particular IN MECCA, it may be all doubted whether he would have come forward as a preacher of monotheism" (p.42, emphasis mine). Remember Muhammad did not say Allah was great, but that Allah was the GREATEST among the other Gods, acknowledging the pre-Islamic origin of Allah, and his religion.
Some authors don't think that Allah and Hubal are one and the same for the simple reason that Hubal is the god of the moon, and Allah is the creator of all these, and supreme ruler of the Universe. They say that the characteristics of the two are different. But as we have shown Hubal was called supreme and creator. There are more similarities than differences between the two. The only reason why there are some differences between the two, and that Allah NOW, as opposed to BACK THEN, resembles the God of the Bible in SOME NOT MOST WAYS, is for the simple reason that "...Judaic and Christian CONCEPTS abetted the TRANSFORMATION OF ALLAH FROM A PAGAN DEITY [Hubal] to the god of all monotheists...There is NO REASON therefore to accept the idea that Allah PASSED TO THE MUSLIMS FROM THE CHRISTIANS AND THE JEWS" (Ceasare Farah, Islam, p.28, emphasis mine). The Jews and the Christians influenced Muhammad, and changed some of the characteristics of Allah to more resemble the God of the Bible. Then he proclaimed that Allah was the supreme god of all religions. As Morey puts it, "Islam is Heathenism in monotheistic form" (Islamic Invasion, p.43, emphasis mine). Why do you think Muhammad destroyed the Idol of Hubal, when he took over Mecca? Because the influences of the Jews and Christians. He knew that the 2nd Commandment said you shall not make any idols to represent God, so because he heard that from the Jews and Christians he destroyed the idol. He also did not at first preach that all god's were false, but that Allah was the greatest among them. It was only later as he was more and more influenced by the Jews and Christians about the concept of God that began to preach that Allah was the only god. But in the beginning it was not so: "This is seen from the fact that the first of the Muslim creed is not 'Allah is Great' but 'Allah is the greatest' i.e., he is the greatest among the gods. WHY WOULD MUHAMMAD SAY THAT...EXCEPT IN A POLYTHEISTIC CONTEXT?" (The Moon God Allah, p.12, emphasis mine). In Morey's book Islamic Invasion he actually shows more DIFFERENCES THAN SIMILARITIES between the God of the Bible and the god of the Koran.
Some try and compare this version of reverence to the stone at the Kaaba to Jacob's pillar stone in the Bible see Genesis 28. But Jacob did not worship this stone, nor did he kiss it, or circle it. He set it up as a testimony to his faith. Also remember as we have seen time and time again these practices of kissing the stone ORIGINATED IN ARABIAN PAGANISM and Not the Bible! Robert Morey says: "This fact answers the questions. Why is Allah never defined in the Koran? Why did Muhammad ASSUME that the pagan Arabs already KNEW WHO ALLAH WAS?...While they [the pagans] believed that Allah, i.e. the moon god, was the greatest of all the gods and the supreme deity in the pantheon of deities, Muhammad decided that Allah was not ONLY the greatest god by the ONLY GOD" (The moon god Allah, p.11-12, emphasis mine). The pagans and Muhammad worshipped the same deity! Allah or Hubal!